otiThe climate in the District is characterized by an average monthly temperature of about 25oC and annual rainfall which ranges between 1,400mm and 1,800mm. About 90% of the District is covered by secondary rainforest. The forest has economic trees such as Wawa, mahogany, Odum, bamboo, raffia palm and Sapele. The total population at the end of 2009 is estimated at 61,520. This is made up of 31,623 (51.4% females) and 12,483 households (48.6% males). This gives a sex ratio of 1.6:1 (106 per 100 males. The economical population of the District is 22,526. About 86% are found in the informal sector with the private formal sector employing 8% and the public formal employing only 6%.
Agriculture is the predominant sector of the District in terms of employment opportunities and incomes. The total arable land in the District is estimated to be 496,573 acres out of which 1,772 acres are cultivated under various food crops. The main cash crop produced in the District is cocoa. The District has a high potential for aquaculture with a correspondingly high level of farmer interest. The livestock industry is a booming one with very high potential.
Rural transport infrastructure shows a complete network of roads linking all communities. Many of the roads, however, are bush trucks but are motorable.
LOCATION AND SIZE
The Kadjebi District is located in the Volta Region of Ghana and forms part of the six (6) northern districts of the Region. It is bordered to the north by the Nkwanta District, to the south by the Jasikan District, to the west by Krachi East and to the east by the Republic of Togo. The district has a total land area of 949 km2. It lies between long. 0ºS-30ºS to lat. 8ºW-30ºW.
According to the projections of the district, the total population of the Kadjebi District as at the end of 2009 was 61,520. This is made up of 31,623 (51.4%) Females and 29,867 (48.6%) males. This gives a sex ratio of 106.0 (i.e. 106 females per 100 males).
According to the Kadjebi District Assembly, there were 8,314 houses and 12,483 households with the average household size of 5.3 in the district as per the projected household size for 2009. However, a sample household survey conducted by the Assembly revealed a household size of 9.5 persons. A large household size is often considered as an asset for agricultural households by providing agricultural labour.
Age – Sex Structure
Age distribution of Population by Sex
|Age group||T o t a l||M a l e||F e m a l e|
|0 – 45 – 910 – 14
15 – 59
60 – 64
65 – 69
Source: Kadjebi District Assembly, 2010
The Kadjebi District is considered to be the least populated district in the Volta Region. It provides only 3.2% of the total Volta Region projected population for 2009. The population growth rate of the district is, however, estimated to be 4.9% which is considered to be high compared with the growth rates of 1.9% and 2.7% for the Region and the Nation respectively. This could be the result of a positive net migration.
Kadjebi district is ethnically diverse. It is predominantly a settler community. Only 19.4% of the population is made up of indigenous Akans. About 47.5% of the population is made up of Ewes and the remaining 33.1% is shared amongst the Guans, Kotokolis, Ga-Dangmes, Mole Dagbanis and other minority groups (Kadjebi District Assembly, 2010)
The Akan language is the predominant language spoken in all the major communities in the district. However, Ewe is spoken alongside Akan in all the communities at social gatherings and state functions. Other widely spoken languages in the district include Hausa, Kotokoli and Chamba. The English Language is also spoken among government officials and other literates.
The indigenous Akan group has eight (8) Traditional areas, namely, Kadjebi, Asato, Dodi, Dodo, Dapaa, Ampeyo, Pampawie and Ahamansu. Each Traditional area has a Paramount Chief, Divisional chiefs, Queen Mother and Chief Linguist. The settler groups have Headsmen who normally pay homage to the Paramount chiefs.
Considering settlements with a population of 5,000 and above as urban, Kadjebi is the only urban settlement in the district. Thus, only 15.9 per cent of total population lives in the urban area. Majority of the population in the district can be found along the corridor of the main Kadjebi-Nkwanta trunk road which runs longitudinal across the District. The main settlements include Kadjebi (8,249), Dzindziso (1,242), Mempeasem (1,562), Poase-Cement (2,093), Dodi-Papase (3,153), Ahamansu (2,632), Dodo-Amanfrom (3,443) and Pampawie (1,594).
The climate in the district is characterized by an average monthly temperature of about 25oC and annual rainfall which ranges between 1400 mm and 1800mm. The rainfall season normally begins in March and ends between October and November each year. The peak of rainfall occurs in June. These conditions are conducive for agriculture production. According to the Kadjebi District Assembly, one major climatic problem facing the district is severe rainstorms, which destroy farm crops, buildings and also cause severe soil erosion in several communities. Also, the prolonged drought during the dry season (December–March) is a major source of worry to farmers who are engaged in dry season agriculture production especially vegetables (Kadjebi District Assembly, 2010)
About 70 per cent of the district is underlain by the Buem formations with the Togo series taking the remaining 30% of the subterranean structure. The principal rock types found in the district include quartzite, phylites, arkose, shale and sandstone. There are also traces of alluvial gold deposits on the banks of river Wawa and clay deposits at Asato, Dodo-Amanfrom and Kadjebi. However, prospecting for alluvial gold in large quantities is being carried out along the banks of wawa river at Ahamansu. Also the quality of the clay deposits is yet to be assessed by the Geological Department on behalf of the Assembly.
The predominant type of soil found in the district is the forest ochrosol. This soil includes the alluvial loams which are found along the three major rivers in the district. The soil supports the cultivation of agricultural crops such as cocoa, plantain, cocoyam, cassava, yams, maize and rice.
RELIEF & DRAINAGE
The district has an average height of about 180 metres above sea level rising to about 600 metres towards the Ghana – Togo Border. The district is blessed with beautiful landscape of hills, mountains and valleys.
Three (3) major rivers run through the entire district. They are the Asukawkaw, Wawa and Menu rivers that take their sources from the Akwapim – Togo hills and drain into the Volta Lake. River Asukawkaw is the largest of the three and flows for about 25 km into the lake. These rivers are considered by the District Assembly as opportunities for the introduction of small-scale irrigation activities in the agriculture sector in the district (Kadjebi District Assembly, 2010).
About 90 per cent of the district is covered by secondary rain forest. The forests have economic trees such as wawa, mahogany, odum, red wood, raffia palm and bamboo grooves to support the wood processing industry. Animal and bird species such as antelopes, monkeys, glasscutters, weaverbirds and parrots abound in the forest. The forest reserve with its animal and bird species is considered by the District Assembly to be a potential for eco-tourism development in the district.
About 18% of the land area of the district is under forest reserve with dense tropical forest. These are the Pepesu and the Kabo Forest reserves.
Agriculture is the predominant sector of the District Economy in terms of employment opportunities and incomes. The cultivation of crops in the Kadjebi District includes Food and Cash crops.
MAJOR CROPS PRODUCED IN THE DISTRICT*
|Type of Crop||Land Area (Acre)||Level of Production Per Acre (tonne)|
|2 0 0 6||2 0 0 7||2 0 0 8||2 0 0 9||2 0 0 6||2 0 0 7||2 0 0 8||2 0 0 9|
MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION LOCATIONS IN THE DISTRICT
|CROP||MAJOR LOCATIONS OF PRODUCTION|
|1. Yam||Produced throughout the District|
|2. Groundnut||Produced throughout the District but less at the South Eastern borders|
|3. Maize||Produced throughout the District|
|4. Cassava||Produced throughout the District|
|5. Rice||Produced Eight valleys in the district.|
|7. Vegetable||Dambai, Tokurano, Katanga, Asukawkaw|
|8. Plantain||Asukawkaw, Okanease, Dormabin, Akokrowa, Adumadum, Kunda|
|9. Oil palm||Asukawkaw, Katanga, Adonkwanta, Dormabin, Adumadum, Okanease, Akokrowa|
|10. Cocoyam||Asukawkaw, Okanease, Okanease, Akokrowa, Adumadum,Kunda,|
The main cash crop produced in the district is cocoa. The cocoa industry was dominant in the district in the recent past but gave way to food crop production as the dominant agriculture activity in the district. Productivity level in the cocoa industry has also fallen and currently output per hectare for the crop is between 5 to 10 maxi bags. This does not compare favour ably with achievable yields of 10 – 16 maxi bags per hectare if improved varieties are cultivated. The cocoa industry is now being revived.
A few heads of cattle are found around Kadjebi and Ahamansu in the district. Small ruminants mainly sheep and goats are common in the district.
The table shows the production levels of livestock from 2006 – 2008.
Production level of livestock in 2006, 2007, 2008
|Livestock Type||L o c a l||E x o t i c|
|2 0 0 6||2 0 0 7||2 0 0 8||2 0 0 6||2 0 0 7||2 0 0 8|
Source: Kadjebi District Assembly, 2010
Traditionally, most farmers who rear livestock do so as a minor occupation. Generally, every household keeps a small number of livestock either to serve a source of dietary protein particularly during important occasions or to be marketed when matured to augment the
Kadjebi District has a high potential for aqua culture with a high Level of farmer interest. Aqua cultural activities started in 1995 with four (4) farmers. The District Agricultural Development Unit (DADU), in collaboration with the VSO, the Sankofa Programme (an NGO) and the Kadjebi District Assembly has since placed high priority on its development on account of its potential for contributing to food security, income generation and employment. Favourable factors include the availability of abundant land and water resources, the under-utilized agricultural by-products to serve as fish feed ingredient and a strong institutional support from DADU.
Marketing of agriculture produce is essential for agricultural development. The district has a number of markets which are outlets for the sale of agricultural produce and purchase of farm inputs. The principal markets in the district and their market days are indicated in the Table.
Market Centres and Days in the District
|Market Centre||Market Days|
|Kadjebi||Tuesdays & Fridays|
Source: Kadjebi District Assembly
The Dodo-Amanfrom, market is the busiest and is followed by Kadjebi, Ahamansu and Poase-Cement respectively. The others are minor markets. Large stocks of farm produce are bought by traders from within and outside the district and transported to Accra, Ho, Akatsi and other towns for sale.
PROJECTS IN THE DISTRICTS
Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme (RTIMP)
The Programme started in 2008 and Ends 2014. The principal objective is to increase production and dissemination of new varieties of cassava. The donor partner is the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
Rice Sector Support Project (RSSP)
The project started in 2009 and will end in 2013. The Project objectives are:
• To develop rice production in four administrative regions: Northern, Upper East, Upper West and Northern Volta regions.
• To ensure national organization of the rice sector through support to Ghana Rice Inter-professional Body (GRIB)
• To implement research activities in order to define cropping systems adapted to natural conditions of project area.
The donor partner is the French government.
Activities include facilitating formation and development of farmer based organizations along the value chain. Targets include processors, producers, marketers and transporters. Other activities include training in data collection, GPS usage and characterization of valleys.
Export Marketing and Quality Awareness Project (EMQAP)
The project started in 2008 and will end in 2012. The donor partner is the African Development Bank. Activities include:
1. Sensitize communities in EMQAP
2. Identify Horticultural groups
3. Train MOFA Staff in nursery practices
4. Organize farmers into groups
5. Train farmers in correct use of appropriate agro-chemicals
6. Organize field days
7. Train farmers in basic farm hygiene
8. Educate farmers on HIV/AIDS awareness
9. Train farmers in safe use of appropriate agro-chemicals
New Rice for Africa (NERICA)
The Project started in 2008 and Ended in 2010. The main project objective was to introduce and encourage NERICA production to farmers in the district. The donor partner was the African Development Bank.
The technology introduced included:
• Usage of Gallon 4 and Propanil
• Row planting
Project activities included the following:
1. Awareness creation and community sensitization
2. Organize Farmer field days
3. Group formation
4. Establish Demonstration plots
5. Undertake Nerica Block Farms
6. HIV/AIDS Education
Beneficiary communities included:
• Asato, Kadjebi,
• Dodo Amanfrom,
• Dodo Tamale,
• Poase Cement,
A total of 350 farmers benefitted from this project involving 200 males and 150 females. A summary of the technologies and the number of farmers who benefited is provided in Table
PROJECTS AND TECHNOLOGIES DELIVERED
|PROJECT||TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY(IES)||BENEFICIARY COMMUNITIES||FARMERS|
|NERICA||DibblingPrimingUsage of Gallon 4 and Propanil
|Asato, Kadjebi, Dodo Amanfrom, Dodo Tamale, Poase Cement, Ahamansu, Pepesu, Menuso, Mempeasem||200||150||350|
|CAVA||Introducing of new varietiesCassava multiplicationPest/Disease recognition, prevention and control||Pampawie, Pepesu, D-Tamale, D-Amanfrom, Kossamba, Ahamansu, Dzamlome||300||200||500|
|RTIMP||Introducing of new varietiesCassava multiplicationRow planting
Pest/Disease recognition, prevention and control
|Pampawie, Pepesu, D-Tamale, D-Amanfrom, Kossamba, Ahamansu, Dzamlome, Asato, Menuso||270||160||430|
Farmer Registration in the Kadjebi District
As indicated in Table 3.2, the District Agricultural Development Unit (DADU) has been compiling the list of farmers. This contributes to the introduction of new agricultural technologies. The register contains information on the farmer and his activities such as:
Name, age, sex, type of crops cultivated, farm size, livestock numbers, etc. Over 2,500 farmers have so far been registered with about 22 per cent of the registered farmers being women. This is part of the activities of the Statistics Research and Information Directorate (SRID).
Total Number of Farmers Registered in the District
|1. AMPEYO (Z3)||55||10||49||6||45||5||54||10|
|2. DODO TAMALE (Z4)||27||4||26||7||11|
|3. DODO AMANFROM (Z4)||38||7||14||5||34||10||36||5||9||1|
|4. ASATO (Z1)||38||36||38||38||36||23||14||25|
|5. DZAMLOME (Z1)||108||44||84||27||120||31||34||9|
|6. AHAMANSU (Z3)||40||17||33||7||40||17||19||6|
|7. POASE CEMENT (Z2)||58||16||57||15||49||15||36||13|
|8. DAPAAH (Z3)||43||14||15||39||4|
|9. DODI PAPASE (Z2)||21||17||18||5||20||17||9||12|
|10. AKUM (zone4)||44||11||36||3||44||9||31||4|
|11. PAMPAWIE(Z 3)||28||29||11||2||28||29||11||11|
|12. DODI PEPESU (Z3)||38||15||33||14|
|13. MEMPASEM (Z2)||49||27||49||27||40||2||44||22|
Source: District Agriculture Development Unit, Kadjebi
Rsearch Extension Linkage Committee (RELC)
The district has established a Research Extension Linkage Committee (RELC) since 2008. This is in line with FASDEP II. Members of RELC in the Kadjebi district include:
• District Director of Agriculture
• District officer (Veterinary)
• District Officer (WIAD/Cocoa)
• District Officer (PHT)
• District Officer (Crops)
• PAAWA (Past Agric. Award Winners Association)
• Farmer Representative
• FBO Representative
• Market Women Representative
• Agro-input Dealer
• NGO Representative
• Deputy DCD (Kadjebi District Assembly)
• District Officer (MISO)
• District Officer (Supervisor)
RELC has been meeting regularly to identify agricultural development issues of the district and areas that require research and technology support. Their activities can ensure demand driven research and the required technological intervention. For instance, the committee has made the following observations and interventions
The observation made is that the crop does not perform well along the river basins of Dodo-Tamale. The crop grows well but at the reproductive stage, it either fails to flower or stunted flowering results. Samples of affected tomato plants have been taken to Pokuase for examination and clinical tests. The result of these tests was that nematode infested soins account forthis. Crop rotation schedules were designed and followed, resulting in better performance of these solonaceous crops in these aress
The observed phenomenon is that there is tuber rot of cassava particularly the Bankyehema variety. Once the tubers start to rot, the stems also became affected leading to wilting of leaves. The phenomenon does not seem to affect younger plants. It was detected that the Bankyehema variety was vulnerable to this condition and steps taken included other varietal selection.
High Yields in Cocoyam
It has been observed that cocoyam production has been seeing a steady increase in yield over the years. The corms have become bigger and attracting more patronage from the buying public.
Abundance of improved cassava varieties in the district to support processors
The Committee has noted that the district has a large number of cassava processors who show interest in improved varieties of cassava for their high yields and income.
The RELC has observed that the livestock sub-sector has been one of the promising and vibrant sub-sector. The livestock that are very predominant are large and small ruminants as well as grasscutter, rabbits etc
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN AGRICULTURE
Non-Governmental Organizations such as Action-aid Ghana are yet to put into action their agricultural programmes. The NGO has among its plans, the following agricultural objectives which are scheduled to take effect from the year 2011
|Intervention Level||Summary of Objectives|
|Project Goal||Improve household food security and microenterprise development|
|Outcome||Thriving agribusiness and commerce|
|Output||Increased youth in Agri-business|
|Activity||ACTIONAID will identify youth and provide funds to MOFA to train youth in small animal rearing|
|Activity||ACTIONAID Purchase and distribute small animals (rabbits, chicken, goats, sheep, guinea fowl) to HHs with OVC|
|Activity||Provide funds to MOFA to support training of youth in vegetable cultivation|
|Activity||ACTIONAID Purchase and distribute seeds, seedlings, and soyabean to youth groups|
|Activity||ACTIONAID Provide storage facilities and drip irrigation kits|
|Activity||MOFA provide agric extension services to youth in agriculture|
Appropriate processing equipment
This problem has been observed to be a perennial one and seems to be unattended to for some time now. Many processors of cassava have local equipment that is laborious in use. The lack of simple but efficient equipment is considered as issues that need to be addressed.
RELC has observed that many of the problems encountered by farmers on the field were as a result of the lack of improved practices such as crop rotation; selection of improved crop varieties for production; timely control of weeds and pests and good farm hygiene.
AVAILABLE FARM LANDS/IRRIGATION POTENTIALS
The District is blessed with 3 perennial rivers that provide ample opportunity for dry-season vegetable farming. Land banks in the district can be found around these water bodies. It is estimated that a minimum of half of this land area is suitable and available for diverse agricultural production. This makes the district very suitable for small to large scale irrigation schemes.
The greater portion of the land in the district is stool owned. Hence an investor only needs to approach the chiefs and their elders for the necessary customary rites for the release of land for any agricultural venture.
The district Assembly has compiled a list of land banks for easy access by would – be investors.
FOOD CROP PRODUCTION
Principal food crops produced in the district include maize, plantain, cassava, rice, cocoyam and yam. The major producing areas are:
Cassava : Dodo-Amanfrom, Papase, Pepesu, Gyamonome,
Ahamansu, Kosamba, Kadjebi, Dapaa and Koru
Plantain : Asato Traditional Area, Papase, Ampeyo, Kadjebi
Cocoyam : Ampeyo, Asato Traditional Area, Papase,
Kadjebi, Dodo-Amanfrom, Pampawie and Poase-Cement
Maize : Kadjebi, Ahamansu, Titiaka, Menusu
Rice : Kadjebi
Yam : Cultivated district wide
The total arable land area in the district is estimated to be 496,573 acres out of which only 1,772 acres were cultivated under various food crops in 2009. The areas under cultivation and production levels of these crops, from 2006 to 2009, are shown in Table
Cultivable Land Area and Production Levels of Crops
|Type of Crop||Land Area (Acre)||Level of Production Per Acre (tonne)|
|2 0 0 6||2 0 0 7||2 0 0 8||2 0 0 9||2 0 0 6||2 0 0 7||2 0 0 8||2 0 0 9|
Source: Kadjebi District Assembly
The climate of Kadjebi District encourages two (2) farming seasons. The slash and burn method is employed during the major season. The minor season does not permit burning. Currently, the “zero-tillage” method is becoming popular among vegetable farmers. The land is cleared, burnt and hoed to make beds or ridges for vegetable cropping.
The bulk of vegetables produced in the district are in the dry season i.e. from November. The crop is cultivated in the low-lying areas where there is some water. The major vegetables during this period are Okro, pepper, garden eggs and leafy vegetables. All these
Crops are also produced during the rest of the year but on a lower scale. Very few farmers produce exotic vegetables mainly cabbages.
Lack of simple irrigation systems for dry season vegetable farming limits the production of dry season vegetables in the district on a large scale.
The climatic conditions of the district make it favourable for animal/Livestock production. Feed/Fodder is available all year round for animal growth and nutrition. Also, there are opportunities for pasture and rangeland development. A variety of grass species are available to serve the needs of all classes of animals. By – products from the various productions carried out in the district serve as supplement for feeding animals. Poultry production is of high interest to people in the district, making more and more people involved in it. Some non – traditional animal production such as grasscutter, rabbit and snail are all of great potentials. Veterinary services are also provided to all animals when and where needed.
11 years of operation has yielded the following results:
i. Establishment of 52 fish ponds on a total land area of 2.6 hectares with 45 fish farmers.
ii. Construction of a fish hatchery at Konsuaso for fingerling production
iii. Training of pond construction gangs in the district.
The following processing groups exist.
I. Gari processing at Adaklukope
II. Gari processing at Mempeasem
III. Cassava dough processing at Pampawie
IV. Oil Palm extraction industry at Poase Cement
V. Gari processing at Pepesu
VI. Fish processing (Dodo Amanfrom, Kadjebi)